Internal combustion engine: types, principle of operation, advantages and disadvantages

As the advantages of the internal combustion engine, which determine its widest use, note: autonomy, relatively low cost, the possibility of use on various consumers, multi-fuel (ICE can work on gasoline, diesel fuel, gas and even on alcohol and rapeseed oil). As to the merits can include a fairly high reliability of internal combustion engines and unpretentiousness in operation, ease of maintenance. Damage to any engine, if accompanied by damage to other machine parts, is a very serious problem. In such a situation, it is better to recycle the machine:

At the same time internal combustion engines have a number of drawbacks: low efficiency, toxicity, noise.

However, the combination of their advantages and disadvantages to date in the transport sector (as a car engine) serious competitors of internal combustion engines do not and in the near future is not expected.

Combustion engines can be divided into several categories

According to the type of energy conversion:





According to the type of working cycle:

with 2 cycle strokes;

with 4 strokes of the cycle

By type of fuel used:

on gasoline;

on diesel;

on gas

ICE device

ICE has a rather complex structure, which can be equipped with:

housing (block and cylinder head);

operating mechanisms (crank and camshaft and timing);

various systems (fuel, intake, exhaust, lubrication, ignition, cooling and control).

The crank mechanism provides the reciprocating motion of the piston and the reverse rotational motion of the shaft.

The timing mechanism is designed to supply fuel and air to the cylinders and to exhaust the gas mixture.

The fuel system is designed to provide the vehicle engine with fuel.

The intake system is responsible for the timely supply of air to the internal combustion engine, and the exhaust system is responsible for removing the exhaust gases, reducing cylinder noise levels, and reducing their toxicity.

The injection system ensures the delivery of TPS to the AC engine.

The ignition system (ignition) performs the function of igniting the mixture of air and fuel, which enters the ICE.

The lubrication system ensures timely lubrication of all internal engine parts and components.

The cooling system provides intensive cooling of the ICE working system during operation.

The control system is responsible for controlling the smooth operation of all important ICE systems.

ICE operating principle

The engine runs on the thermal energy of the gases produced during combustion of the fuel used, which in turn triggers the piston motion in the cylinder. The internal combustion engine works cyclically. In order to repeat each successive cycle, the exhaust mixture is removed and a new portion of fuel and air enters the piston.

Modern car models use four-stroke engines. The operation of such an engine is based on four equal parts in time. The tact is the process that is carried out in the cylinder of a car engine in one stroke (raising/lowering) of the piston.

The piston in the cylinder performs four clock movements – two up and two down. The clock movement starts from the extreme point (lower or upper) and goes through the following stages: intake, compression, movement and release.

Let’s consider features of operation of internal combustion engine at each of the tacts in more detail.

Inlet stroke

The intake begins at the extreme point (MT – dead point). It does not matter from which point the movement begins, from the upper MT or lower MT. Starting its movement in the cylinder, the piston captures the incoming fuel-air mixture with the intake valve open. The fuel-air mixture can be formed both in the intake manifold and in the combustion chamber.

Compression cycle

During compression, the intake valves are completely closed and the FAM begins to be compressed directly in the cylinders. This occurs due to the reverse piston movement from one MT to the other. This compresses the FAM to the size of the combustion chamber itself. Strong compression ensures a more productive operation of the FAM.

Stroke (work stroke)

During this cycle the air-fuel mixture is ignited. This can be by self-ignition (for diesel engines) or forced ignition (for gasoline engines). Due to the ignition of the GCV, gases are rapidly formed, the energy of which acts on the piston, driving it in motion. The cage transforms progressive piston movements into rotary shaft movements. The system valves must be fully closed on the stroke as well as on the compression stroke.

Release cycle

The final exhaust cycle is when all the exhaust valves are opened and then the valve train removes exhaust gases from the combustion engine into the exhaust system, where they are cleaned, cooled and the noise level is reduced. At the end, the gases are completely discharged into the atmosphere.

After the exhaust stroke is complete, the cycles are repeated, starting with the intake stroke.

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